Learning notes — opengl01

 
The first lesson
1.1 Simple OpenGL program contains:
First, you need to include the header file #include <; GL/glut.h> So this is the header file for GLUT. OpenGL programs typically include <; GL/gl.h> And & lt; GL/glu.h> , but both files are automatically included in the GLUT header file and do not need to be included again.   The functions that begin with GLUT are all functions provided by the GLUT toolkit. Here are some of the functions used: Glutinit initializes GLUT. This function must be called once before another GLUT is used. Glutinit (& Arg C, Arg V. 2, GLUTINITDISPLAYMODE, set the display mode, where GLUT_RGB means to use the RGB color, and GLUT_INDEX (means to use the index color). GLUT_single means to use a single buffer, as does GLUT_DOUBLE (to use a double buffer). GlutinitWindowPosition, which is simple, sets the position of the window on the screen. 4, GlutinitWindowSize, this is also easy, set the window size. 5, GlutCreateWindow, create a window based on the information set above. Parameters will be used as the title of the window. Note: The window is not immediately displayed on the screen after it is created. You need to call glutMainLoop to see the window. 6. GlutdisplayFunc, which sets a function that will be called when a drawing is needed. (This statement is not accurate, but the accurate statement may not be easy for beginners to understand, so say for the time being). 7. GlutMainLoop, which runs a message loop. (This may not be obvious to beginners, but for now it is enough to know that this function displays a window and waits for the window to close before returning.)   All the functions that start with GL are standard OpenGL functions, and the ones that are used are described below. 1, Glclear. GL_Color_BUFFER_BIT clears the color, and glClear clears other things, but I won't cover them here. 2, Glrectf, draw a rectangle. The four parameters represent the horizontal and vertical coordinates of the two points located on the diagonal. Glflush ensures that previous OpenGL commands are executed immediately (rather than having them wait in the buffer). It works similarly to fflush(stdout).   The second lesson 2.1 Draw simple geometric shapes Dots: Dots in OpenGL will be drawn as individual pixels Straight lines: OpenGL's concept of a "line" is close to the mathematical concept of a "line segment," which can be defined by two endpoints. Polygon: A polygon must be a "convex polygon" (defined as: any two points in a polygon are within the polygon, from which it can also be deduced that a convex polygon cannot be hollow), usually triangular By using points, lines and polygons, you can combine various geometric figures   2.2 Specify vertices OpenGL provides a number of functions. They all start with glVertex, followed by a number and one or two letters. Such as: GLVERTEX2D GLVERTEX2F GLVERTEX3F GLVERTEX3FV and so on. The number means the number of arguments, 2 means there are two arguments, 3 means three, and 4 means four. Letters parameter type, s 16-bit integers (due to the type defined as GLshort OpenGL), I said a 32-bit integer (OpenGL in this type is defined as the GLint and GLsizei), f is a 32-bit floating point Numbers (due to the type defined as GLfloat OpenGL and GLclampf), d said 64 floating point Numbers (due to the type defined as GLdouble OpenGL and GLclampd). V indicates that several parameters will be passed using Pointers   2.3 Start drawing OpenGL requires that the command specifying the vertex be included after glBegin and before glEnd (otherwise the specified vertex will be ignored). GlBegin is left to indicate how to use these points. Such as: glBegin(GL_POINTS); GlVertex2f (0.0 0.0 f, f); GlVertex2f (0.0 0.5 f, f); glEnd(); Then these two points will be drawn separately. If you replace GL_POINTS with GL_LINES, then the two points will be considered to be the two endpoints of the line, and OpenGL will draw a line. You can also specify more vertices and then draw more complex shapes. GL_POINTS, GL_LINES, GL_LINE_STRIP, GL_LINE_LOOP, GL_TRIANGLES, GL_TRIANGLE_STRIP, GL_TRIANGLE_FAN, etc. (See Figure 1) The third class 3.1 about the point Point size: Default value is 1.0F, function prototype void glpointSize (GLFloat Size); Example: void myDisplay(void) { glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT); GlPointSize (5.0 f); GlBegin (GL_POINTS); ... GlEnd (); glFlush(); } 3.2 About Straight Lines 3.2.1 Line width Function prototype void gllineWidth (glFloat Width); The usage is similar to glpointSize. 3.2.2 dotted line First, use glEnable(GL_LINE_STIPPLE); To start the dotted line mode (use glDisable(GL_LINE_STIPPLE) to turn it off). Then, use glLineStipple to set the style of the dotted line. void glLineStipple(GLint factor, GLushort pattern); Pattern is a sequence of length 16 composed of 1 and 0. Viewed from the lowest position, if it is 1, then factor points that should be drawn next on the line will be drawn as solid. If 0, then factor points that should be drawn next on the line will be drawn as virtual. 3.3 About polygons 3.3.1 Both sides of polygons and their drawing methods Although we haven't really used 3D coordinates to draw a picture yet, it is necessary to establish some 3D concepts. In three dimensions, a polygon has two faces. Each face can be drawn in a different way: fill, draw only edges, and draw only vertices, with fill being the default. You can set the two faces in different ways. glPolygonMode(GL_FRONT, GL_FILL); // Set front to fill mode glPolygonMode(GL_BACK, GL_LINE); GlPolygonMode (GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, GL_POINT); glPolygonMode(gl_front, GL_POINT); // Set both sides to vertices 3.3.2 rainfall distribution on 10-12 inversion The convention is that the face whose vertices appear counterclockwise on the screen is "heads" and the other face is "tails". Common surfaces in life can usually be represented with such "heads" and "tails" as "reasonable". But there are some surfaces that are special. For example, a "Maibius strip" can be represented with either all "heads" or all "tails". You can exchange the concepts of "heads" and "tails" through the glFrontFace function. glFrontFace(GL_CCW); // Set the CCW direction to "Front", CCW is Counterclockwise Glfrontface (GL_CW); // Set the CW direction to "Front", CW is ClockWise * There is routine openGL4 3.3.3 Remove polygonal surfaces In three dimensional space, a polygon has two faces, but we can't see the polygons on the back, and some of the polygons are on the front, but are obscured by other polygons. Treating invisible polygons the same as visible polygons will definitely reduce the efficiency of our graphics processing. At times like this, you can cut out unnecessary surfaces. First, use glEnable(GL_CULL_FACE); To enable culling (disable using glDisable(GL_CULL_FACE)), then use glCullFace to cull. The parameter of glCullFace can be GL_FRONT, GL_BACK, or GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, which are polygons that remove the front, back, and back sides, respectively. Note: the cull function only affects polygons, not points and lines. For example, with glCullFace(GL_FRONT_AND_BACK), all polygons are removed so that only points and lines are visible. 3.3.4 Hollow out polygon Straight lines can be drawn as dotted lines, while polygons can be hollowed out. First, use glEnable(GL_POLYGON_STIPPLE); To start the hollowout mode (which can be turned off with glDisable(GL_POLYGON_STIPPLE)). Then, use glPolygonStipple to set the hollow out style. void glPolygonStipple(const GLubyte *mask); The mask parameter points to a space of 128 bytes, which indicates how a 32 by 32 rectangle should be hollow out. Where: The first byte indicates whether the 8 pixels at the bottom left are hollow (1 means no hollow, showing the pixel; 0 indicates hollowout, showing the color behind it), and the last byte indicates whether the top right eight pixels are hollowout or not. If such data is saved as a picture and edited with a special tool, it is obviously much more convenient. Here's how to do it. First, create a new image using the Windows Brush program and name it mask.bmp. Make sure to save it with "Monochrome Bitmap" selected. In "Image" -> In the Properties dialog box, set the height and width of the image to 32. Look at the picture with a magnifying glass and edit it. Black corresponds to binary zero (hollow out), white corresponds to binary one (no hollow out), after editing saved. You can then use the following code to get the Mask array.
static GLubyte Mask[128];
FILE *fp; fp = fopen(“mask.bmp”, “rb”);
if( ! fp ) exit(0);
// Move the file pointer to this position so that reading sizeof(Mask) will encounter the end of the file
// Note that -(int)sizeof(Mask) is not a good way to write it, but it does work here, right
If (fseek(fp, -(int)sizeof(Mask), SEEK_END) exit(0); if(fseek(fp, -(int)sizeof(Mask), SEEK_END) exit(0);
// Read the sizeof(Mask) bytes into the Mask
if( ! fread(Mask, sizeof(Mask), 1, fp) )
exit(0);
fclose(fp);
 
Edit an image as a mask, and use the above method to get the array of masks. After running, observe the effect. Note: The factor factor can be set when drawing a dashed line, but the factor factor cannot be set when drawing a hollow polygon. Please use the mouse to change the size of the window, observe the change of the hollowout effect.
* There is routine openGL5


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