Copy forbidden in C + +++

A common way to disallow copying classes is to define copy constructors and assignment functions as private functions, as shown in effective c++ :
Real estate agents sell houses, and software systems that serve such agents naturally have a class to represent the houses being sold:
class HomeForSale { … };
Every real estate agent is quick to point out that every property is unique — no two are exactly alike. In this case, the idea of making a copy for a HomeForSale Object is puzzling. How can you copy something unique?So it’s best to make things like this attempt to copy a HomeForSale Object non-compilable:
HomeForSale h1;
HomeForSale h2;
HomeForSale h3(h1);// attempt to copy the h1 – should
// not compile!
h1 = h2;// attempt to copy the h2 – should
// not compile!
Alas, the way to prevent this kind of compilation is not that straightforward. In general, if you don’t want a class to support some kind of functionality, you can simply not declare the function that gives it that functionality. This strategy does not work for copy constructor (copy constructor) or copy assignment operator (copy assignment operator) because, as indicated in Item 5, if you do not declare them and someone wants to call them, the compiler will declare them for you.
That limits you. If you do not declare copy constructor or copy assignment operator, the compiler can also generate them for you. Your class will also support copying. On the other hand, if you declare these functions, your classes will still support copying. During this period, our aim is to prevent copying!
The key to solving this problem is that all compiler generated functions are public. To prevent these functions from being generated, you have to declare them yourself, but you have no reason to declare them public. Instead, declare the copy constructor (copy constructor) and the copy assignment operator (copy assignment operator) private. By explicitly declaring a member function, you prevent the compiler from generating its own version, and by declaring the function private, you prevent others from calling it.
In general, this option is not very safe, as the member and friend functions can still call your private functions. In other words, unless you’re smart enough not to define them. So, when someone accidentally calls them, there will be an error at link-time. This technique – declaring member functions private yet deliberately failing to implement it – is indeed very good. In the iostreams library of C++, there are several classes using this method to prevent copying. For example, if you look at the definitions (definitions) of ios_base, basic_ios, and Sentry in your standard library implementation, you will see that the copy constructor (copy constructor) and the copy assignment operator (copy assignment operator) are declared private and are not defined.
To apply this trick to HomeForSale, it’s simple:
The class HomeForSale {


HomeForSale (const HomeForSale&) ;// declarations only
HomeForSale& operator=(const HomeForSale&) ;
You’ll notice That I omitted the name functions’ parameters. It’s not necessary, it’s just a common practice. After all, functions are not implemented and are less likely to be used, so why specify parameter names?
For the above class Definition, the compiler will prevent a client from attempting to copy HomeForSale Objects, and if you accidentally do so in a Member or friend function, the linker will protest.
Will link – time error (connection) in advance to compile time is feasible after all, the discovery of the error (early than late found good), by not HomeForSale itself declared in the copy constructor (copy constructor) and copy the assignment operator (copy assignment operator) is a private, but in a to prevent copying (prevent copy) and specially designed base class (base class) in a statement. The base class itself is very simple:
Class Uncopyable {
protected:// allow construction
Uncopyable () {}// and destruction of
~ Uncopyable () {}// derived objects…
Uncopyable (const Uncopyable&) ;//… But prevent copying
Uncopyable& operator=(const Uncopyable&) ;
To prevent copying HomeForSale Objects, we must now make it inherit from Uncopyable:
Class HomeForSale: private Uncopyable {// class no longer
…// declares copy ctor or
};// copy the assign. Operator
This is done because if someone — even a member (member) or friend function (friend function) — tries to copy a HomeForSale Objects (object), the compiler will attempt to generate a copy constructor (copy constructor) and a copy assignment operator (copy assignment operator). As explained by Item 12, the compiler-generated versions of these functions attempt to call the corresponding functions of the Base class, and these calls are rejected because the copy operation is private in the Base class.
The implementation and use of Uncopyable contain subtlety. For example, inheritance from Uncopyable need not be public (see Items 32 and 39), and Uncopyable’s destructor need not be virtual (see Item 7). Because Uncopyable does not contain data, it meets the condition of Empty Base Class Optimization described by Item 39, but because it is a base class, multiple inheritance cannot be introduced for application of this technique (see Item 40). On the other hand, Multiple inheritance sometimes defies empty Base Class optimization (see Item 39 again). In general, you can ignore these subtleties and use Uncopyable only as demonstrated here, because it works like an advertisement. You can also use a version available in Boost (see Item 55). That class is called noncopyable. That’s a good thing, I just found that name a little UN – (no…) HMM… Nonnatural.

Read More: