Linux installs Python and upgrades Python

summary dry goods

#解包
tar -zxvf  Python-3.8.2.tgz
#进入解包后的目录
cd /home/urs/Python-3.8.2
#设置安装目录
mkdir /usr/local/python3
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/python3
#进行编译安装
make && make install
#设置软链接
cd /usr/bin
#备份
cp python python.bak_20200923 
#删除
rm -f python
#创建
ln -s /usr/local/python3/bin/python3.8 python

specify

first you need to look at what version of python is currently installed in your environment
python -V
或者
python --version
或者
rpm -qa|grep python

2. General python is installed to/urs/bin can go to have a look at the soft connection
CD/usr/bin

3. After determining the current version, if the requirements are not met or Python is not installed, look below.

install python

download python unpack the tar ZXVF python – 3.8.2. TGZ
python – after unpacking 3.8.2

to create the installation directory, using the mkdir command/usr/local/python3

compile and install
tar -zxvf Python-3.8.0b2.tgz
mkdir /usr/local/python3
#如果没有编译环境,会有错误提示,修复的办法是安装gcc或者工具套件
#先查看有没有gcc  whereis gcc 如果有说明当前你没有权限切换root执行

[[email protected] Python-3.8.0b2]# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/python3
checking build system type... x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
checking host system type... x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
checking for python3.8... no
checking for python3... no
checking for python... python
checking for --enable-universalsdk... no
checking for --with-universal-archs... no
checking MACHDEP... "linux"
checking for gcc... no
checking for cc... no
checking for cl.exe... no
configure: error: in `/home/axing/Python-3.8.0b2':
configure: error: no acceptable C compiler found in $PATH
See `config.log' for more details
#如果没有编译环境先安装
[[email protected] Python-3.8.0b2]# yum -y groupinstall "Development Tools"
#装完后重新编译
cd Python-3.8.0b2
#设置配置
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/python3
#进行编译 需要耐心等待一会
make && make install

the installation is complete will generate the following documents/usr/local/python3 # Ls
bin include lib share

to view the current soft links

#设置软链接
cd /usr/bin
#备份
cp python python.bak_20200923 
#删除
rm -f python
#创建
ln -s /usr/local/python3/bin/python3.8 python
例如:
[[email protected]]# ln -s /usr/local/python3/bin/python3.8 /usr/bin/python3
[[email protected]]# python3
Python 3.8.0b2 (default, Jul  8 2019, 12:01:59)
[GCC 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-36)] on linux
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>>

native connection Internet installation method

[[email protected] ~]# cd /usr/local/src
[[email protected] ~]# wget https://www.python.org/ftp/python/2.7.5/Python-2.7.5.tgz
[[email protected] ~]# tar xvf Python-2.7.5.tgz
[[email protected] ~]# cd Python-2.7.5
[[email protected] ~]# ./configure
[[email protected] ~]# make all
[[email protected] ~]# make install
[[email protected] ~]# make clean
[[email protected] ~]# make distclean

may cause problems

 这种方法虽然能安装成功,但是它带来了新的问题,比如yum不能正常用了

  修改/usr/bin/yum的第一行为:

  #!/usr/bin/python_old2

  就可以了    

full installation log

ooooooobh:/ooooooobh/Python-3.8.2 # ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/python3
checking build system type... x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
checking host system type... x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
checking for python3.8... no
checking for python3... python3
checking for --enable-universalsdk... no
checking for --with-universal-archs... no
checking MACHDEP... "linux"
checking for gcc... gcc
checking whether the C compiler works... yes
checking for C compiler default output file name... a.out
checking for suffix of executables... 
checking whether we are cross compiling... no
checking for suffix of object files... o
checking whether we are using the GNU C compiler... yes
checking whether gcc accepts -g... yes
checking for gcc option to accept ISO C89... none needed
checking how to run the C preprocessor... gcc -E
checking for grep that handles long lines and -e... /usr/bin/grep
checking for a sed that does not truncate output... /usr/bin/sed
checking for --with-cxx-main=<compiler>... no
checking for g++... no
configure:

  By default, distutils will build C++ extension modules with "g++".
  If this is not intended, then set CXX on the configure command line.
  
checking for the platform triplet based on compiler characteristics... x86_64-linux-gnu
checking for -Wl,--no-as-needed... yes
checking for egrep... /usr/bin/grep -E
checking for ANSI C header files... yes
checking for sys/types.h... yes
checking for sys/stat.h... yes
checking for stdlib.h... yes
checking for string.h... yes
checking for memory.h... yes
checking for strings.h... yes
checking for inttypes.h... yes
checking for stdint.h... yes
checking for unistd.h... yes
checking minix/config.h usability... no
checking minix/config.h presence... no
checking for minix/config.h... no
checking whether it is safe to define __EXTENSIONS__... yes
checking for the Android API level... not Android
checking for --with-suffix... 
checking for case-insensitive build directory... no
checking LIBRARY... libpython$(VERSION)$(ABIFLAGS).a
checking LINKCC... $(PURIFY) $(MAINCC)
checking for GNU ld... yes
checking for --enable-shared... no
checking for --enable-profiling... no
checking LDLIBRARY... libpython$(VERSION)$(ABIFLAGS).a
checking for ar... ar
checking for readelf... readelf
checking for a BSD-compatible install... /usr/bin/install -c
checking for a thread-safe mkdir -p... /usr/bin/mkdir -p
checking for --with-pydebug... no
checking for --with-trace-refs... no
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checking PROFILE_TASK... -m test --pgo
checking for --with-lto... no
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checking whether gcc accepts and needs -fno-strict-aliasing... no
checking if we can turn off gcc unused result warning... yes
checking if we can turn off gcc unused parameter warning... yes
checking if we can turn off gcc missing field initializers warning... yes
checking if we can turn on gcc mixed sign comparison warning... yes
checking if we can turn on gcc unreachable code warning... no
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checking if we can make implicit function declaration an error in gcc... yes
checking whether pthreads are available without options... no
checking whether gcc accepts -Kpthread... no
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checking whether gcc accepts -pthread... yes
checking whether g++ also accepts flags for thread support... yes
checking for ANSI C header files... (cached) yes
checking asm/types.h usability... yes
checking asm/types.h presence... yes
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checking crypt.h usability... yes
checking crypt.h presence... yes
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checking pty.h usability... yes
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checking libutil.h usability... no
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checking sys/resource.h usability... yes
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checking netpacket/packet.h usability... yes
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checking bluetooth.h usability... no
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checking linux/tipc.h usability... yes
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checking linux/random.h usability... yes
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checking spawn.h usability... yes
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checking util.h usability... no
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checking alloca.h usability... yes
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checking sys/sysmacros.h usability... yes
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checking linux/memfd.h usability... yes
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checking sys/mman.h usability... yes
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checking for dirent.h that defines DIR... yes
checking for library containing opendir... none required
checking whether sys/types.h defines makedev... yes
checking bluetooth/bluetooth.h usability... no
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checking for net/if.h... yes
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checking for linux/can.h... yes
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checking for linux/can/bcm.h... yes
checking for clock_t in time.h... yes
checking for makedev... yes
checking for le64toh... yes
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checking for pid_t... yes
checking for size_t... yes
checking for uid_t in sys/types.h... yes
checking for ssize_t... yes
checking for __uint128_t... yes
checking size of int... 4
checking size of long... 8
checking size of long long... 8
checking size of void *... 8
checking size of short... 2
checking size of float... 4
checking size of double... 8
checking size of fpos_t... 16
checking size of size_t... 8
checking size of pid_t... 4
checking size of uintptr_t... 8
checking for long double... yes
checking size of long double... 16
checking size of _Bool... 1
checking size of off_t... 8
checking whether to enable large file support... no
checking size of time_t... 8
checking for pthread_t... yes
checking size of pthread_t... 8
checking size of pthread_key_t... 4
checking whether pthread_key_t is compatible with int... yes
checking for --enable-framework... no
checking for dyld... no
checking the extension of shared libraries... .so
checking LDSHARED... $(CC) -shared
checking CCSHARED... -fPIC
checking LINKFORSHARED... -Xlinker -export-dynamic
checking CFLAGSFORSHARED... 
checking SHLIBS... $(LIBS)
checking for sendfile in -lsendfile... no
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checking for library containing sem_init... -lpthread
checking for textdomain in -lintl... no
checking aligned memory access is required... no
checking for --with-hash-algorithm... default
checking for --with-address-sanitizer... no
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checking for t_open in -lnsl... no
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checking for --with-libs... no
checking for pkg-config... /usr/bin/pkg-config
checking pkg-config is at least version 0.9.0... yes
checking for --with-system-expat... no
checking for --with-system-ffi... yes
checking for --with-system-libmpdec... no
checking for --enable-loadable-sqlite-extensions... no
checking for --with-tcltk-includes... default
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checking for --with-dbmliborder... 
checking if PTHREAD_SCOPE_SYSTEM is supported... yes
checking for pthread_sigmask... yes
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checking if --enable-ipv6 is specified... yes
checking if RFC2553 API is available... yes
checking ipv6 stack type... linux-glibc
checking for CAN_RAW_FD_FRAMES... yes
checking for --with-doc-strings... yes
checking for --with-pymalloc... yes
checking for --with-c-locale-coercion... yes
checking for --with-valgrind... no
checking for --with-dtrace... no
checking for dlopen... yes
checking DYNLOADFILE... dynload_shlib.o
checking MACHDEP_OBJS... none
checking for alarm... yes
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checking for bind_textdomain_codeset... yes
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checking for explicit_bzero... no
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checking for tgamma... yes
checking whether isinf is declared... yes
checking whether isnan is declared... yes
checking whether isfinite is declared... yes
checking whether POSIX semaphores are enabled... yes
checking for broken sem_getvalue... no
checking whether RTLD_LAZY is declared... yes
checking whether RTLD_NOW is declared... yes
checking whether RTLD_GLOBAL is declared... yes
checking whether RTLD_LOCAL is declared... yes
checking whether RTLD_NODELETE is declared... yes
checking whether RTLD_NOLOAD is declared... yes
checking whether RTLD_DEEPBIND is declared... yes
checking whether RTLD_MEMBER is declared... no
checking digit size for Python's longs... no value specified
checking wchar.h usability... yes
checking wchar.h presence... yes
checking for wchar.h... yes
checking size of wchar_t... 4
checking for UCS-4 tcl... no
checking whether wchar_t is signed... yes
checking whether wchar_t is usable... no
checking whether byte ordering is bigendian... no
checking ABIFLAGS... 
checking SOABI... cpython-38-x86_64-linux-gnu
checking LDVERSION... $(VERSION)$(ABIFLAGS)
checking whether right shift extends the sign bit... yes
checking for getc_unlocked() and friends... yes
checking how to link readline libs... none
checking for rl_pre_input_hook in -lreadline... no
checking for rl_completion_display_matches_hook in -lreadline... no
checking for rl_resize_terminal in -lreadline... no
checking for rl_completion_matches in -lreadline... no
checking for append_history in -lreadline... no
checking for broken nice()... no
checking for broken poll()... no
checking for working tzset()... yes
checking for tv_nsec in struct stat... yes
checking for tv_nsec2 in struct stat... no
checking curses.h usability... yes
checking curses.h presence... yes
checking for curses.h... yes
checking ncurses.h usability... yes
checking ncurses.h presence... yes
checking for ncurses.h... yes
checking for term.h... yes
checking whether mvwdelch is an expression... yes
checking whether WINDOW has _flags... yes
checking for is_pad... yes
checking for is_term_resized... yes
checking for resize_term... yes
checking for resizeterm... yes
checking for immedok... yes
checking for syncok... yes
checking for wchgat... yes
checking for filter... yes
checking for has_key... yes
checking for typeahead... yes
checking for use_env... yes
configure: checking for device files
checking for /dev/ptmx... yes
checking for /dev/ptc... no
checking for %zd printf() format support... yes
checking for socklen_t... yes
checking for broken mbstowcs... no
checking for --with-computed-gotos... no value specified
checking whether gcc -pthread supports computed gotos... yes
checking for build directories... done
checking for -O2... yes
checking for glibc _FORTIFY_SOURCE/memmove bug... no
checking for gcc ipa-pure-const bug... no
checking for stdatomic.h... no
checking for GCC >= 4.7 __atomic builtins... yes
checking for ensurepip... upgrade
checking if the dirent structure of a d_type field... yes
checking for the Linux getrandom() syscall... yes
checking for the getrandom() function... no
checking for library containing shm_open... -lrt
checking for sys/mman.h... (cached) yes
checking for shm_open... yes
checking for shm_unlink... yes
checking for pkg-config... /usr/bin/pkg-config
checking whether compiling and linking against OpenSSL works... yes
checking for X509_VERIFY_PARAM_set1_host in libssl... yes
checking for --with-ssl-default-suites... python
configure: creating ./config.status
config.status: creating Makefile.pre
config.status: creating Misc/python.pc
config.status: creating Misc/python-embed.pc
config.status: creating Misc/python-config.sh
config.status: creating Modules/ld_so_aix
config.status: creating pyconfig.h
creating Modules/Setup.local
creating Makefile


If you want a release build with all stable optimizations active (PGO, etc),
please run ./configure --enable-optimizations


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