[solution] pyinnstaller package EXE file tutorial

In business scenarios, Python is often required to develop some small programs/scripts/GUI interfaces, which can be delivered to Xiaobai or partners who do not have Python installed
Deng Deng Deng Deng

Scene description

Use pyinnstaller to package Python scripts or projects to generate executable. Exe files. Pyinstaller is a very good free packaging tool, supports windows, Linux and MacOS, and perfectly supports 32-bit and 64 bit systems. In addition to pyinstaller, you can also use py2exe for packaging

Pyinstaller installation

pip install pyinstaller

Packing parameters

# Common packing parameters
# -F -D mutually exclusive parameters
-F package into an exe file, small projects can be used, slow to open, multiple .py package can not be used
-D default parameter, package the result into the created folder, you can see a lot of dependency files inside

# -w -c mutually exclusive parameters
-w use the project GUI interface, no cmd console
-c default parameter, use cmd console If the execution of the package file reports an error, you can try to use -c to show the console

-n the name of the execution project, default .py file name
-i package ico icon into exe file

--hidden-import package information when packaging
# It is highly recommended to package PyQt projects with the following parameters
--hidden-import PyQt5.sip

# Example package command
# Execute the package command in the root directory of the project
pyinstaller -w xxx.py --hidden-import PyQt5.sip
# The output of the package is in the dist folder in the project's root directory
# It is not recommended to use -F to package into an exe file as the saying goes: package for a while, open for 5 seconds
# Non-F command, static resources, built Sqlite database can be put directly into the dist generated folder


Pyinstaller just packages Python interpreter and script into an executable file, which is different from compiling into real machine code. So the efficiency of the code is reduced, only to solve the operation difficulty of Xiaobai users. When packaging, we will analyze the project dependencies, package the related dependencies, and encrypt them. Different operating systems need to be packaged in different operating systems


Summary of solutions to packaging problems

Console debug
runs successfully locally. It is recommended to use the - C command when the EXE is packaged for the first time, so that possible error messages can be displayed in the console
if the - C is not used during packaging, the console will not appear or the console will flash by and the error message will not be seen, you can execute the EXE file fatal error failed to execute script file in the CMD command line window
pyinstaller. Some libraries are not packaged during packaging, The library in error reporting information can be packaged by -- hidden import error reporting package

Solutions to various errors in pyinstall packaging python3.6 + pyqt5

The result file is too large

Parameters in help

>>> pyinstaller -h
usage: pyinstaller [-h] [-v] [-D] [-F] [--specpath DIR] [-n NAME]
                   [--add-data <SRC;DEST or SRC:DEST>]
                   [--add-binary <SRC;DEST or SRC:DEST>] [-p DIR]
                   [--hidden-import MODULENAME]
                   [--additional-hooks-dir HOOKSPATH]
                   [--runtime-hook RUNTIME_HOOKS] [--exclude-module EXCLUDES]
                   [--key KEY] [-d {all,imports,bootloader,noarchive}] [-s]
                   [--noupx] [--upx-exclude FILE] [-c] [-w]
                   [-i <FILE.ico or FILE.exe,ID or FILE.icns>]
                   [--version-file FILE] [-m <FILE or XML>] [-r RESOURCE]
                   [--uac-admin] [--uac-uiaccess] [--win-private-assemblies]
                   [--osx-bundle-identifier BUNDLE_IDENTIFIER]
                   [--runtime-tmpdir PATH] [--bootloader-ignore-signals]
                   [--distpath DIR] [--workpath WORKPATH] [-y]
                   [--upx-dir UPX_DIR] [-a] [--clean] [--log-level LEVEL]
                   scriptname [scriptname ...]

positional arguments:
  scriptname            name of scriptfiles to be processed or exactly one
                        .spec-file. If a .spec-file is specified, most options
                        are unnecessary and are ignored.

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -v, --version         Show program version info and exit.
  --distpath DIR        Where to put the bundled app (default: .\dist)
  --workpath WORKPATH   Where to put all the temporary work files, .log, .pyz
                        and etc. (default: .\build)
  -y, --noconfirm       Replace output directory (default:
                        SPECPATH\dist\SPECNAME) without asking for
  --upx-dir UPX_DIR     Path to UPX utility (default: search the execution
  -a, --ascii           Do not include unicode encoding support (default:
                        included if available)
  --clean               Clean PyInstaller cache and remove temporary files
                        before building.
  --log-level LEVEL     Amount of detail in build-time console messages. LEVEL
                        may be one of TRACE, DEBUG, INFO, WARN, ERROR,
                        CRITICAL (default: INFO).

What to generate:
  -D, --onedir          Create a one-folder bundle containing an executable
  -F, --onefile         Create a one-file bundled executable.
  --specpath DIR        Folder to store the generated spec file (default:
                        current directory)
  -n NAME, --name NAME  Name to assign to the bundled app and spec file
                        (default: first script's basename)

What to bundle, where to search:
  --add-data <SRC;DEST or SRC:DEST>
                        Additional non-binary files or folders to be added to
                        the executable. The path separator is platform
                        specific, ``os.pathsep`` (which is ``;`` on Windows
                        and ``:`` on most unix systems) is used. This option
                        can be used multiple times.
  --add-binary <SRC;DEST or SRC:DEST>
                        Additional binary files to be added to the executable.
                        See the ``--add-data`` option for more details. This
                        option can be used multiple times.
  -p DIR, --paths DIR   A path to search for imports (like using PYTHONPATH).
                        Multiple paths are allowed, separated by ';', or use
                        this option multiple times
  --hidden-import MODULENAME, --hiddenimport MODULENAME
                        Name an import not visible in the code of the
                        script(s). This option can be used multiple times.
  --additional-hooks-dir HOOKSPATH
                        An additional path to search for hooks. This option
                        can be used multiple times.
  --runtime-hook RUNTIME_HOOKS
                        Path to a custom runtime hook file. A runtime hook is
                        code that is bundled with the executable and is
                        executed before any other code or module to set up
                        special features of the runtime environment. This
                        option can be used multiple times.
  --exclude-module EXCLUDES
                        Optional module or package (the Python name, not the
                        path name) that will be ignored (as though it was not
                        found). This option can be used multiple times.
  --key KEY             The key used to encrypt Python bytecode.

How to generate:
  -d {all,imports,bootloader,noarchive}, --debug {all,imports,bootloader,noarchive}
                        Provide assistance with debugging a frozen
                        application. This argument may be provided multiple
                        times to select several of the following options.

                        - all: All three of the following options.

                        - imports: specify the -v option to the underlying
                          Python interpreter, causing it to print a message
                          each time a module is initialized, showing the
                          place (filename or built-in module) from which it
                          is loaded. See

                        - bootloader: tell the bootloader to issue progress
                          messages while initializing and starting the
                          bundled app. Used to diagnose problems with
                          missing imports.

                        - noarchive: instead of storing all frozen Python
                          source files as an archive inside the resulting
                          executable, store them as files in the resulting
                          output directory.

  -s, --strip           Apply a symbol-table strip to the executable and
                        shared libs (not recommended for Windows)
  --noupx               Do not use UPX even if it is available (works
                        differently between Windows and *nix)
  --upx-exclude FILE    Prevent a binary from being compressed when using upx.
                        This is typically used if upx corrupts certain
                        binaries during compression. FILE is the filename of
                        the binary without path. This option can be used
                        multiple times.

Windows and Mac OS X specific options:
  -c, --console, --nowindowed
                        Open a console window for standard i/o (default). On
                        Windows this option will have no effect if the first
                        script is a '.pyw' file.
  -w, --windowed, --noconsole
                        Windows and Mac OS X: do not provide a console window
                        for standard i/o. On Mac OS X this also triggers
                        building an OS X .app bundle. On Windows this option
                        will be set if the first script is a '.pyw' file. This
                        option is ignored in *NIX systems.
  -i <FILE.ico or FILE.exe,ID or FILE.icns>, --icon <FILE.ico or FILE.exe,ID or FILE.icns>
                        FILE.ico: apply that icon to a Windows executable.
                        FILE.exe,ID, extract the icon with ID from an exe.
                        FILE.icns: apply the icon to the .app bundle on Mac OS

Windows specific options:
  --version-file FILE   add a version resource from FILE to the exe
  -m <FILE or XML>, --manifest <FILE or XML>
                        add manifest FILE or XML to the exe
  -r RESOURCE, --resource RESOURCE
                        Add or update a resource to a Windows executable. The
                        RESOURCE is one to four items,
                        FILE[,TYPE[,NAME[,LANGUAGE]]]. FILE can be a data file
                        or an exe/dll. For data files, at least TYPE and NAME
                        must be specified. LANGUAGE defaults to 0 or may be
                        specified as wildcard * to update all resources of the
                        given TYPE and NAME. For exe/dll files, all resources
                        from FILE will be added/updated to the final
                        executable if TYPE, NAME and LANGUAGE are omitted or
                        specified as wildcard *.This option can be used
                        multiple times.
  --uac-admin           Using this option creates a Manifest which will
                        request elevation upon application restart.
  --uac-uiaccess        Using this option allows an elevated application to
                        work with Remote Desktop.

Windows Side-by-side Assembly searching options (advanced):
                        Any Shared Assemblies bundled into the application
                        will be changed into Private Assemblies. This means
                        the exact versions of these assemblies will always be
                        used, and any newer versions installed on user
                        machines at the system level will be ignored.
                        While searching for Shared or Private Assemblies to
                        bundle into the application, PyInstaller will prefer
                        not to follow policies that redirect to newer
                        versions, and will try to bundle the exact versions of
                        the assembly.

Mac OS X specific options:
  --osx-bundle-identifier BUNDLE_IDENTIFIER
                        Mac OS X .app bundle identifier is used as the default
                        unique program name for code signing purposes. The
                        usual form is a hierarchical name in reverse DNS
                        notation. For example:
                        com.mycompany.department.appname (default: first
                        script's basename)

Rarely used special options:
  --runtime-tmpdir PATH
                        Where to extract libraries and support files in
                        `onefile`-mode. If this option is given, the
                        bootloader will ignore any temp-folder location
                        defined by the run-time OS. The ``_MEIxxxxxx``-folder
                        will be created here. Please use this option only if
                        you know what you are doing.
                        Tell the bootloader to ignore signals rather than
                        forwarding them to the child process. Useful in
                        situations where e.g. a supervisor process signals
                        both the bootloader and child (e.g. via a process
                        group) to avoid signalling the child twice.

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