Spring configuration transaction, JUnit unit test error “failed to load ApplicationContext”

problem:

Junit unit test code is as follows:

package cn.muke.spring.demo2;

import javax.annotation.Resource;
import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.test.context.ContextConfiguration;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner;

/**
 * Spring的声明式事务管理方式一的测试类
 * @author CX
 *
 */
@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@ContextConfiguration("classpath:applicationContext2.xml")
public class SpringDemo2 {
	
	/**
	 * 因为要测试业务层的实现类,所以引用业务层的接口
	 */
	@Resource(name="accountService")
	private AccountService accountService;	
	
    /**
	 * 转账案例:
	 */
	@Test
	public void demo1() {
		accountService.transfer("aaa", "bbb", 200d);
	}
}

Applicationcontext2.xml configuration is as follows :

<?xml version="1.0" encoding='UTF-8'?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
	xmlns:aop="http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop"
	xmlns:tx="http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx"
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
	http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
	http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
	http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd
	http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop
	http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop/spring-aop.xsd
	http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx
	http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx/spring-tx.xsd">
		
	<!-- 引入外部的属性文件 -->
	<context:property-placeholder location="classpath:jdbc.properties"/>
	
	<!-- 配置c3p0连接池 -->
	<bean id="dataSource" class="com.mchange.v2.c3p0.ComboPooledDataSource">
		<property name="driverClass" value="${jdbc.driverClass}"/>
		<property name="jdbcUrl" value="${jdbc.url}"/>
		<property name="user" value="${jdbc.username}"/>
		<property name="password" value="${jdbc.password}"/>
	</bean>
		
	<!-- 配置业务层类 -->
	<bean id="accountService" class="cn.muke.spring.demo2.AccountServiceImpl">
		<!-- 业务层注入DAO方式 -->
		<property name="accoutDAO" ref="accountDAO"/>		
	</bean>
	
	<!-- 配置DAO类 -->
	<bean id="accountDAO" class="cn.muke.spring.demo2.AccountDAOImpl">
		<!-- 在XML中注入连接池 ,在DAO实现类中继承JdbcDaoSupport,两者都可以 -->
		<property name="dataSource" ref="dataSource"/>
	</bean>
		
</beans>

accountService and accountDao should be ok, that is, the DataSource is injected into the dao, and the dao error message is injected into the service as follows:

2018-12-29 15:44:21 INFO  org.springframework.beans.factory.xml.XmlBeanDefinitionReader  Loading XML bean definitions from class path resource [applicationContext2.xml]
2018-12-29 15:44:21 INFO  org.springframework.context.support.GenericApplicationContext  Refreshing [email protected]37cf78: startup date [Sat Dec 29 15:44:21 CST 2018]; root of context hierarchy
2018-12-29 15:44:21 ERROR org.springframework.test.context.TestContextManager  Caught exception while allowing TestExecutionListener [org.springframewor[email protected]40f08448] to prepare test instance [[email protected]]
java.lang.IllegalStateException: Failed to load ApplicationContext
	at org.springframework.test.context.TestContext.getApplicationContext(TestContext.java:157)
	at org.springframework.test.context.support.DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.injectDependencies(DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.java:109)
	at org.springframework.test.context.support.DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.prepareTestInstance(DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.java:75)
	at org.springframework.test.context.TestContextManager.prepareTestInstance(TestContextManager.java:313)
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.createTest(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:211)
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner$1.runReflectiveCall(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:288)
	at org.junit.internal.runners.model.ReflectiveCallable.run(ReflectiveCallable.java:12)
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.methodBlock(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:284)
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:231)
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:88)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$3.run(ParentRunner.java:290)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$1.schedule(ParentRunner.java:71)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.runChildren(ParentRunner.java:288)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.access$000(ParentRunner.java:58)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$2.evaluate(ParentRunner.java:268)
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.statements.RunBeforeTestClassCallbacks.evaluate(RunBeforeTestClassCallbacks.java:61)
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.statements.RunAfterTestClassCallbacks.evaluate(RunAfterTestClassCallbacks.java:71)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.run(ParentRunner.java:363)
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.run(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:174)
	at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit4.runner.JUnit4TestReference.run(JUnit4TestReference.java:89)
	at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.TestExecution.run(TestExecution.java:41)
	at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.runTests(RemoteTestRunner.java:541)
	at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.runTests(RemoteTestRunner.java:763)
	at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.run(RemoteTestRunner.java:463)
	at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.main(RemoteTestRunner.java:209)
Caused by: java.lang.IllegalArgumentException
	at org.springframework.asm.ClassReader.<init>(Unknown Source)
	at org.springframework.asm.ClassReader.<init>(Unknown Source)
	at org.springframework.asm.ClassReader.<init>(Unknown Source)
	at org.springframework.core.type.classreading.SimpleMetadataReader.<init>(SimpleMetadataReader.java:52)
	at org.springframework.core.type.classreading.SimpleMetadataReaderFactory.getMetadataReader(SimpleMetadataReaderFactory.java:80)
	at org.springframework.core.type.classreading.CachingMetadataReaderFactory.getMetadataReader(CachingMetadataReaderFactory.java:101)
	at org.springframework.core.type.classreading.SimpleMetadataReaderFactory.getMetadataReader(SimpleMetadataReaderFactory.java:76)
	at org.springframework.context.annotation.ConfigurationClassUtils.checkConfigurationClassCandidate(ConfigurationClassUtils.java:70)
	at org.springframework.context.annotation.ConfigurationClassPostProcessor.processConfigBeanDefinitions(ConfigurationClassPostProcessor.java:253)
	at org.springframework.context.annotation.ConfigurationClassPostProcessor.postProcessBeanDefinitionRegistry(ConfigurationClassPostProcessor.java:223)
	at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors(AbstractApplicationContext.java:630)
	at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.refresh(AbstractApplicationContext.java:461)
	at org.springframework.test.context.support.AbstractGenericContextLoader.loadContext(AbstractGenericContextLoader.java:106)
	at org.springframework.test.context.support.AbstractGenericContextLoader.loadContext(AbstractGenericContextLoader.java:57)
	at org.springframework.test.context.support.AbstractDelegatingSmartContextLoader.delegateLoading(AbstractDelegatingSmartContextLoader.java:100)
	at org.springframework.test.context.support.AbstractDelegatingSmartContextLoader.loadContext(AbstractDelegatingSmartContextLoader.java:248)
	at org.springframework.test.context.TestContext.loadApplicationContext(TestContext.java:124)
	at org.springframework.test.context.TestContext.getApplicationContext(TestContext.java:148)
	... 24 more

solution:

this is because Spring is in conflict with the JDK version, Spring3.* is in conflict with JDK 1.8. So you need to change the JDK to 1.7 or upgrade to Spring4.*.

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